Here is the hidden war within the Civil War: African-American spies, "Black Dispatches" about their exploits, secret codes, secret lives.
Military Intelligence operatives kept them under surveillance and in secret reports convinced high-ranking Army officers--among them Army Chief of Staff Douglas MacArthur--the veterans were controlled by communists fomenting revolution. After the House passed a bill that would have given the veterans their bonus, the Senate voted it down. President Herbert Hoover ordered a partial eviction of the veterans. On July 28, 1932, MacArthur, going beyond presidential orders, ordered tanks on the streets of Washington for the first time and began a violent, flaming expulsion of the veterans. Treating them as as revolutionaries, he drove them out of the city with tear gas and soldiers wielding bayonet-tipped rifles. Newsreels, the TV of the time, showed American soldiers attacking veterans, along with their wives and children.
The expulsion of the Bonus Army helped to elect President Roosevelt that fall, but Roosevelt now had the bonus issue. He tried to solve it by recruiting the veterans into the New Deal's enviornmental agency, the Civilian Conservation Corps. Many of the veterans were sent to work camps in Florida, where, in 1935, the worst hurricane ever to strike North America killed hundreds of them. Ernest Hemingway took up their cause, as did sympathetic members of Congress, including Representative Edith Norse Rogers. When World War II began, she, like other lawmakers with long memories, realized that veterans of the new war needed a new social contract. This time, there would be no march on Washington. The legacy of the Bonus Army would come in 1944 in the form of the GI Bill.
Through extensive research, including interviews with the last surviving witnesses, journalists Paul Dickson and Thomas Allen go beyond the incident of July 28, 1932, and discover a saga that continues to this day, for the GI Bill is still there for today's servicemen and women.
In over 2,500 entries, "Spy Book" covers spies, ranging from the famous (Mata Hari, Alger Hiss, Julius Rosenberg, Sidney Reilly) to the surprising (George Washington, Graham Greene) to the unknown (the “cookie lady” of Saigon, Dames Blanches). Also covered are the world's principal spy agencies and such spy tools as microdots and L-pills. Using new, previously classified sources, the book contains information on a new spy tunnel in Washington, a bug in the State Department, and the workings of the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.